Substantial Damage – You Have Questions, We Have Answers
Cleighton Smith, PE, CFM
Taylor Wiseman & Taylor
Why Are We Doing This?
The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created in 1968 to allow for previously unavailable flood insurance policies to be written in communities that agreed to adopt and enforce a Flood Damage Prevention Ordinance. The key principles were, and still are:
FEMA requires communities to perform damage assessments after a flood for all structures in their floodplain. If the damages are estimated to be “substantial”, meaning the cost to repair to the pre-flood condition is greater than 50% of the market value of that structure, the structure is required to rebuild in such as way as to meet requirements for new construction. If this process were universally applied, we would not have a repetitive loss problem in the NFIP today.
Whose Job is It?
It is the primary responsibility of the Floodplain Manager, however he or she may use whatever tools, mutual aid agreements, consultants available to them to carry out this work. FEMA recognizes this can be a large undertaking and has created a Desk Reference to be used for this work: https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fema_nfip_substantial-improvement-substantial-damage-desk-reference.pdf.
How Do I Do It?
The actual calculations are facilitated by software created by FEMA found here. This tool can be used to generate damage estimates based on post-flood field work. Data needed are type of foundation, type of building, depth of flooding above the ground outside the house, depth of flooding above the first floor, location of various utilities that serve the building and the estimated extent of damage of these. Checklists can be developed for use by the field team. The software tool has an accompanying field workbook, which is very helpful in developing these estimates. These estimated damages are used to compare with the building’s market value. Tax records are useful, because they separate the building value from the land value (the substantial damage calculation is based on building only, not land value). The damage estimate is divided by the building value to obtain a percentage; if it is over 50%, the building is considered substantially damaged. The Substantial Damage Estimator (SDE) software does a great job of gathering this information and generating a one-page summary sheet to be attached to a letter to the property owner.
What is the End Product?
The substantial damage (SD) letter is the most important part of this process. It typically is a one-page letter, with two paragraphs. The first states that building at this address has been substantially damaged and gives the basis for that determination (e.g. SDE software, community tax records, etc.). There should be a sentence stating that his is an estimate and they have the opportunity to submit actual repair data, which could revise this determination. The second paragraph focusses on what this means to the homeowner. To obtain a new Certificate of Occupancy, the reconstruction must meet current design standards. This paragraph might have information about what steps they should take if they want to be bought out, or information on filing for Increased Cost of Compliance (ICC) if they plan to elevate. Lastly, there should be a point of contact for the recipient of the letter to contact if they have questions (and they will!). The letter should be signed by a high-ranking community official (mayor, administrator, etc.). The one-page summary from the SDE software needs to be attached.
What Does This Mean for the Property Owner?
It depends on the property owner. If they are interested in a buyout, it might prioritize them ahead of others. SD structures can receive waiver of a Benefit-Cost analysis for some FEMA grant opportunities. If they choose to elevate, and they have NFIP flood insurance, they can obtain an extra $30,000 on their insurance, through ICC coverage. The SD letter is a key document the insurance company needs to release the ICC funds. If they believe they are under the 50% threshold, they can submit actual repair bills. One thing to keep in mind, however – if the homeowner did the work himself or herself, we need to factor in the true cost as is a contractor did the work. The same is true of any donated materials.
Is That It?
These are some of the basics of the SD process. One question that comes up is why is one community doing them and not the neighboring community that was hit by the same flood? That is not so easily answered. The process is a basic NFIP community responsibility. However, it is not always the top enforcement priority of FEMA and State NFIP staff. Another item worth noting -- for Community Rating System (CRS) communities, there are credit points involving the SD process. Creating an SD plan (pre-populating the SDE software with properties in your community floodplain), modifying your ordinance to arrive at the SD threshold sooner, either by adding together past storm (cumulative damages), or by lowering the threshold below 50% are credit-worthy activities. See the CRS Manual for more information.
If you have any questions about the SD process or the SDE software, contact the author at email@example.com.
NJAFM exhibited their informational booth at SurvCon 2022 conducted at Harrah’s in Atlantic City on 22 through 25 February 2022. This event was well attended by over 600 Professional Land Surveyors and associates. Our cooperating partner, NJSPLS Director Mark Husik thanked us for our attendance and looks forward to our attendance next year for SurvCon 2023 on 22 through 24 February, 2023
We are planning on attending the NYSFSMA Conference at the Landing Hotel in Schenectedy, New York on 3 to 5 May 2022.
ASFPM provides a mentoring packet downloadable from their website. All New Jersey CFM’s can help increase our membership and make NJAFM stronger by mentoring anyone who is interested in becoming a CFM and help our Association attain our goals.
A big part of NJAFM outreach is to assist in managing floodplains by educating the public about the dangers of flooding. It is very hard to believe that New Jersey suffered 29 deaths directly related to Tropical Storm Ida, and 10 of the 29 deaths were individuals who drove into floodwaters not realizing the depth and the power that these flood flows can release. Outreach will be drawing information from other states “Turn Around Don’t Drown” (TADD) programs to better inform New Jersey residents of this danger.
Anyone interested in helping with the NJAFM Outreach program, please email Chair at firstname.lastname@example.org
Thomas Slowinski, PLS, CFM
NJDEP, Dam Safety & Flood Engineering
Outreach Committee Chair
The NJAFM Training Committee has scheduled several on-line webinar events which will qualify for continuing education credits. Registration links to the upcoming courses will be provided to active NJAFM membership. The webinars are free of charge and open to the general membership of NJAFM and select invited guests. The NJAFM Calendar of Events will include dates for the webinars and topics. Webinars are currently scheduled for April 1, May 13 and May 26. Additional webinars dates will be added and it is expected that the calendar will be full of webinar topics. NJAFM sincerely thanks the effort of the presenters. Topics currently planned range from HEC-RAS discussions, Flood Insurance Topics and Hurricane Outlooks.
Please contact NJAFM if you are able to provide an hour discussion regarding a flood topic important to you. The webinars are an opportunity to express your credentials to community and to get some free advertising for your organization. Should you want to refresh a past NJAFM conference presentation or make a dry run of your 2022 NJAFM Conference presentation during a webinar be glad to host you.
The FEMA Community Rating System (CRS) is a voluntary incentive program that recognizes and encourages community floodplain management practices that exceed the minimum requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). A total of 95 communities in NJ currently participate in the CRS Program. There are a total of 553 communities in NJ that participate in the NFIP.
In CRS communities, flood insurance premium rates are discounted to reflect the reduced flood risk resulting from the community’s efforts that address the following three goals of the CRS program:
How much of discount that flood insurance policy holders can obtain are dependent on the communities CRS Class rating as noted in the table below:
Currently in NJ, there are a total of 95 CRS Program communities and their current class rating is as noted in the table to the right and geographically on the NJ CRS map. As can be seen by the NJ CRS map (courtesy of NJDEP), the majority of the NJ CRS communities and communities with the most discount are generally coastal communities.
The NJAFM CRS committee can assist NJ CRS communities to continue to remain in good standing with FEMA and the NFIP. Over the past few years, the NJDEP has been working with CRS communities to adopt and enforce a new updated code-coordinated model flood damage prevention ordinance at https://www.nj.gov/dep/floodcontrol/modelord.htm. This code-coordinated ordinance aligns the NFIP requirements with the New Jersey Flood Hazard Area Control Act (FHACA) and the NJ Uniform Construction Code (UCC). This has also included working with communities to implement a NJ Model Floodplain Development Permit application form. The NJ model floodplain development permit form can be downloaded here: https://www.nj.gov/dep/floodcontrol/model-floodplain-permit.htm. The NJAFM CRS Committee has supported NJDEP on these efforts and their ongoing training.
If you have a CRS issue that that you would like address or if you would like to participate in the NJAFM CRS Committee, please reach out to the NJAFM CRS Committee at Contact - NJAFM.
Joseph Ruggeri, P.E., CFM, Supervising Engineer
NJDEP, Division of Dam Safety & Flood Engineering, Bureau of Flood Engineering
NJ State NFIP Coordinator's Office
CRS Committee Chair
With the impacts from PTC Ida coming into clearer view and the 10th anniversary of Hurricane Sandy on the horizon, the NJAFM Legislative Committee is accelerating engagement and advocacy efforts to promote sound floodplain management in New Jersey. In January, the Legislative Committee convened its members to discuss engaging legislators to develop a requirement for certified floodplain managers in local government, as well as enhance capabilities of local officials in floodplain management. The Legislative Committee drafted letters to Senate and Assembly leadership asking for consideration of legislation that would formally recognize the Certified Floodplain Manager credential and set educational standards for floodplain administrators in the State of New Jersey. The letter also asks legislators to consider a requirement that FEMA mitigation grants are administrated by certified floodplain managers. The letters highlight the outsized role that NJAFM has in educating floodplain managers and ensuring that the technical proficiency and status conferred by the CFM credential is the baseline for local officials performing floodplain management roles in New Jersey.
NJAFM is also joining forces with the Waterfront Alliance and other advocacy groups to support enhanced flood disclosure requirements for real estate transactions in New Jersey. In early March, Karen Imas and Tyler Taba of the Waterfront Alliance will be presenting the proposed policy framework and action plan for this initiative to the Legislative Committee. The technical knowledge and experience of the Committee will help to inform language for future legislation and ensure that NJAFM's policy goals and priorities are implemented. The accelerating impacts of climate change and recent, deadly flooding events make enhanced flood risk disclosure an imperative for individual and community preparedness. The Legislative Committee believes that enhanced flood disclosure is common-sense and lifesaving.
Interested in floodplain management policy and advocacy? Contact Brian Kempf at email@example.com to join the NJAFM Legislative Committee.
Brian T. Kempf, CFM, AICP, PP
Legislative Committee Chair
Visit our Committee Page for more information on all 8 NJAFM Committees and learn how you can get more involved!
DEP OFFERS $9.4 MILLION TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
AND ORGANIZATIONS FOR STORMWATER, FLOOD REDUCTION
AND WATER QUALITY PROJECTS
DEP Commissioner LaTourette Encourages Local Leaders, Community Groups, Universities and Others to Submit Funding Applications to Restore and Protect New Jersey’s Watersheds
(22/P03) TRENTON – The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection is seeking applicants for its latest round of grant funding, which prioritizes projects that will restore and protect New Jersey’s watersheds while better managing stormwater runoff and reducing flooding risks in our communities, Commissioner Shawn M. LaTourette announced. Specifically invited are those nonprofit organizations, local governments, community groups and state colleges and universities ready to plan and deploy multifaceted water quality projects in the Delaware River watershed and the northeast region of New Jersey.
When we invest in restoring and protecting natural assets within our watersheds through projects like constructing rain gardens or improving stormwater infrastructure, we help those natural resources to provide vital and free services for the public—like storm protection and improved water quality,” said Commissioner LaTourette. “We are encouraging all local leaders and organizations in Northeastern New Jersey and in the Delaware River Watershed to join in and let us help them invest in their natural resources and environmental infrastructure.”
The DEP has issued a Request For Proposal to solicit applications for up to $9.4 million available to eligible water quality improvement projects and watershed planning activities. Funding applications may be submitted to the DEP’s Water Quality Restoration Grants Program. The project proposal submission deadline is 5 p.m. Monday, Feb. 28.
Projects that may be eligible for grant funding include those that:
In addition, funding from the U.S. Department of Defense will target stormwater management and riparian areas of the Rancocas Creek watershed.
Stormwater runoff can carry pollutants such as nutrients from fertilizers and animal wastes as well as automotive fluids and pesticides into waterways. Excessive nutrients can cause algae blooms that impact the ecological health of waterways and diminish the public’s recreational enjoyment of them.
The grants are made possible through funds provided under Section 319(h) of the federal Clean Water Act, the Department of Defense Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration Program and a part of the environmental dedication from the state’s Corporation Business Tax.
Click here to view the Request For Proposal, including requirements for proposal submissions, and for more information about New Jersey's Water Quality Restoration Grants Program.
Follow Commissioner LaTourette on Twitter and Instagram @shawnlatur. Follow the DEP on Twitter @NewJerseyDEP, Facebook @newjerseydep, Instagram @nj.dep, and LinkedIn @newjerseydep.
Follow the links below to register for upcoming trainings being offered by the DEP and FEMA! Each training is one hour and awards one Continuing Education Credit for Certified Floodplain Managers and will provide 0.1 Continuing Education Unit for Uniform Construction Code Officials.
Local Design Flood Elevation Worksheet
Determining a Local Design Flood Elevation involves:
When Floodplain Administrators make accurate decisions, no one seems to notice. However, when inaccurate decisions are made, they can directly impact insurance affordability for property owners and subject structures to a higher risk of flooding.
Recognizing that accuracy and documentation were two things that would help guide the decision-making process, a worksheet that can be used by Floodplain Administrators to accurately determine the proper flood elevations was created by our department.
How to Implement a Substantial Damage Management Plan
The DEP’s new Substantial Damage Plan Template for NFIP Communities is a plan that everyone hopes will “sit on a shelf” and never be needed. However, New Jersey’s Climate Change Resilience Strategy predicts a 50% chance of a 1.4 foot increase in sea level rise by 2050 and predicts more frequent, more intense precipitation events that will redefine the 100 year/1% annual chance base flood event. Implementing a Substantial Damage Plan clarifies substantial damage and improvement decision-making and provides a path forward after a disaster. It also helps communities assist property owners with consistent communication and predictable floodplain management practices that can speed recovery after a flood event. During this training, the DEP will go over the contents of the plan and how it can benefit your community in the pre and post disaster environment.
Model Code Coordinated Ordinance Rollout
During this training, the DEP will introduce the Model Code Coordinated Ordinance and inform communities on how to adopt and use the ordinance, and what changes communities can expect to see from previous models. All 552 participating communities will have to adopt to remain in good standing with the National Flood Insurance Program. This ordinance incorporates New Jersey Flood Hazard Area Control Act higher floodplain standards and required National Flood Insurance Program regulatory requirements with Statewide Uniform Construction Code flood resistant design requirements. In its post-Sandy recommendations, FEMA suggested that New Jersey move towards code-coordinated ordinances to clarify how each of these regulations and the individuals charged with implementing them at the local level work together to prevent flood damage. These ordinances also address gaps in previous model ordinance language noted in a recent FEMA audit and provide more specific information on how development should be designed, permitted, and constructed to ensure compliance with the National Flood Insurance Program.
Ordinance Administration and Model Permit
New Jersey has recently developed a new Model Code-Coordinated Ordinance which all 552 participating communities will have to adopt to remain in good standing with the NFIP. This training will provide floodplain administrators with the knowledge to navigate New Jersey's Flood Hazard Area Control Act higher floodplain standards, NFIP regulatory requirements, and the Uniform Construction Code's flood resistant design requirements. This training is more in depth than the sessions that rolled out the new ordinance and will focus on administering the ordinance and ensuring that a community's floodplain management program is compliant with the National Flood Insurance Program.
One tool to help with administering the model ordinance is the newly released Floodplain Development Permit. Having and using the Floodplain Development Permit for activities in the floodplain is a FEMA requirement for NFIP participating communities. Recent FEMA compliance assistance visits have indicated that many permits are not actually permits but are notations, tracked on the Uniform Construction Code sleeve. This has raised concerns that key items required in technical bulletins are not being addressed uniformly throughout the state and that key technical information is not being provided as required by applicants during permit application. This model permit is intended to walk floodplain administrators through the permit application, issuance, variance, enforcement stages, ensuring that all required recordkeeping will be maintained.
From left to right: John Sartor, Jen Koplitz, Mark Lennon, Bill Salmon, Kristin Baltadonis, Jason Schooling and Kris McCool
If you are a member of NJAFM, you undoubtedly either personally knew or had heard of Marilyn Lennon, who was both a former assistant commissioner at the NJDEP and one of our most passionate and involved members. Sadly, she passed in March of this year. To honor her many contributions to our organization, we posthumously granted Marilyn our Lifetime Achievement Award in recognition of her outstanding work in our field and the community of floodplain managers at large.
In May, PS&S posted the following tribute which includes remembrances of Marilyn by those who knew her and her brother Mark, also a long-time PS&S team member, who accepted the award at our annual conference on Marilyn’s behalf.
We would encourage you all to read the following recognition of the life of this much loved, amazing person Marilyn Lennon, a friend of NJAFM.
HOW MANY NJAFM CONFERENCES HAVE YOU BEEN TO AND WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE PART?
I’ve attended approximately a half-dozen NJAFM conferences. I always find the conference very informative with a great deal of collaboration with both peers in the industry and regulatory agencies. The New Jersey Chapter also seems to find great speakers that are captivating and floodplain management relevant.
PS&S WAS WIDELY RECOGNIZED IN THE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING COMMUNITY FOR ITS WORK ON DAYLIGHTING THE SAW MILL RIVER. WHAT DO YOU FEEL MADE THAT PROJECT PARTICULARLY SUCCESSFUL?
The Saw Mill River Daylighting project converted a very industrialized and urbanized watercourse to a significant public amenity while incorporating sustainable design concepts, improving water quality and marine habitat all while maintaining acceptable floodplain characteristics. The project has been recognized by many regulatory agencies and associations, including being named project of the year by the New York Society of Professional Engineers.
DOES PS&S HAVE ANY DAYLIGHTING OR FLOODPLAIN REMEDIATION PROJECTS GOING ON RIGHT NOW? IF SO, WHERE?
PS&S has a Daylighting project under construction in Watchung, New Jersey that’s associated with a proposed residential development. We’re also in the conceptual design phase on two additional sections of the Saw Mill River Daylighting project in Yonkers, New York. With land availability at a premium, PS&S is consistently working on development projects that include a floodplain management component.
WHEN PS&S IS CALLED IN ON A FLOODPLAIN PROJECT, WHAT DO YOU FIND AS THE MOST CHALLENGING ASPECTS?
One of the most challenging aspects of a floodplain project is to design a creative solution that is aesthetically pleasing, cost effective and hydraulically sound in theory and practice all at the same time. That’s what makes the Saw Mill Daylight Project such a great project, it achieved those elements, included being hydraulically tested with the recent rainfall events.
WHEN YOU CONSIDER CONSTRUCTION AND THE USE OF PERMEABLE MATERIALS, ARE YOU SEEING WIDER ADOPTION? ARE THERE NEW SOLUTIONS OR COMBINATIONS OF SOLUTIONS THAT YOU FEEL HAVE SIGNIFICANT POTENTIAL?
That’s a great question. There’s definitely an increased use of permeable material in all aspects of land development design. New Jersey recently passed Stormwater Management legislation requiring additional water quality and infiltration provisions in site design. I think we’ll be seeing an increase in the use of pervious pavement in parking areas and permeable paving stones in driveway applications.
DO YOU FEEL THAT THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING PARTICULARLY IN THE NORTHEAST IS ACCURATE OR OVERBLOWN?
I’m on the side that believes that the impact of climate change is real and accurate. It’s fairly well documented that we’ve had statistical rainfall changes and increase in extreme flooding events well over the last 30 years or so. We are also seeing other drivers associated with climate change such as increases in surface temperature and seal level rise. PS&S was recently retained to evaluate flooding conditions caused by Hurricane Ida adjacent to the Raritan River in New Brunswick. This particular area of the Raritan River is interesting because the upper fluvial section of the river is greatly influenced by the lower tidal reaches. The higher tide elevation negatively impacted and created the higher fluvial elevation, increasing the width and depth of the floodplain.
HURRICANE IDA RECENTLY DROPPED A MASSIVE AMOUNT OF RAIN IN THE NORTHEAST. WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE FLOODING THAT OCCURRED, WHAT WOULD YOU SAY WERE THE MOST BASIC THINGS THAT COULD BE FIXED? WHAT ARE SOME OF THE EASIER, FRONTLINE STEPS WE SHOULD ALL BE TAKING? AS PROFESSIONALS? AS HOMEOWNERS OURSELVES?
When I look at the flooding that has occurred over time and even more recently, I think that the one basic thing still seems to be that the general public needs to take advanced Emergency Management warnings more seriously and get themselves out of harm’s way. We generally understand that a typical rainfall of 0-1 inches is a nuisance in certain locations, so when we hear that a potential rainfall of 8 inches is in our path, we need to understand that it could be catastrophic. I don’t believe the solution is easy -- a multi-pronged approach of education, increased regulation, and climate resilient infrastructure design is necessary.
THE DUTCH RECENTLY CREATED A 1,300-ACRE FLOODPLAIN ALONG THE MAAS RIVER IN THE NETHERLANDS. COULD YOU SEE UNDERTAKING PROJECTS OF THAT SCALE IN THE U.S.?
Yes, I think we’ll see an increase of land acquisition in some parts of the United States where land is more readily available. Reverting high density areas like the Northeast into large floodplain expanses will be a little more challenging. However, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection does have a voluntary floodplain management program in place called Blue Acres. The Blue Acres program was a bond act that allocated monies for the acquisition of lands in the floodplain of major rivers and associated tributaries should a property owner wish to sell their flood prone property. A big hurdle associated with the program is land valuation. As you can imagine, land valuation is always a very big concern for property owners in New Jersey. Many property owners can’t afford to leave their flood prone homes due to the low market value, it’s a real catch 22.
THE NEW JERSEY FLOOD HAZARD AREA CONTROL ACT WAS ADOPTED IN 2007 AND WAS AMENDED IN 2016. DO YOU FORESEE ANY NEAR-TERM AMENDMENTS COMING? WHAT’S BEING TALKED ABOUT?
Yes, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection is discussing potential amendments to the Land Resource Protection Rules to help protect against climate threats. The proposed amendments address a few major areas concerning Sea Level Rise, the establishment of an Inundation Risk Zone, a redefining of Tidal Flood Hazard Areas and a redefining of Fluvial flood hazard areas are the major areas of discussion. I’m sure we’ll hear an update from the State regulatory personnel at the conference this year, including themes such as enhanced stormwater design and permitting to encourage renewable energy and green infrastructure.
WHAT YEAR DID YOU BECOME A CERTIFIED FLOODPLAIN MANAGER (CFM)? WHEN YOU LOOK AT ALL THE ASPECTS OF FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT, WHICH PARTS AND PROJECTS DO YOU PERSONALLY FIND THE MOST INTERESTING?
I became a Certified Floodplain Manager about three or four years ago. The most rewarding aspect of floodplain management is designing a project based upon sound engineering principals as well as state-of-the-art design techniques, having it tested by real-life occurrences and having the project stand up to the challenge. I had the opportunity to work on a particular land development / floodplain project along the Middle Brook in Bound Brook that was associated with the U.S Army Corp Green Brook Flood Control project. The project was designed, permitted, and constructed in coordination with the Army Corps, NJDEP and Somerset County. The U.S. Army Corp levee system and the interior flood control measures performed as anticipated on multiple occasions, protecting the western portion of Bound Brook and our particular project.
April 2-4, 2005 Delaware River Flood
Check out the USGS Report: https://www.usgs.gov/center-news/flooding-new-jersey-april-2-4-2005-flooding-new-jersey?qt-news_science_products=3#qt-news_science_products
Since its inception in 2004, the New Jersey Association for Floodplain Management (NJAFM) has been a strong partner with NJDEP in promoting the mutual goal of promoting sound floodplain management in New Jersey. NJAFM is a state chapter of the national Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM), the most respected voice in floodplain management practice and policy in the United States. NJAFM also collaborates with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on a range of federal floodplain management issues, including the National Flood Insurance Program, flood mapping, outreach and education.
NJAFM provides technical training and educational opportunities for municipal floodplain managers, construction code officials and other public and private sector professionals working in the field of floodplain management. The NJAFM annual conference also provides a forum for sharing information and experiences with local, state, regional, and federal officials, industry leaders, consultants and a wide variety of subject matter experts from diverse fields.
NJAFM welcomes the opportunity to further our partnership with NJDEP and FEMA, and invites interested parties to work with us on floodplain management issues that will enhance public safety, maintain the functions and values of natural resources, and ensure compliance with state and federal floodplain requirements.
New Jersey among states to be hit hardest by future flooding, with thousands more properties at risk than expected, group warns.
New Jersey and Delaware face some of the highest risks in the nation for flooded properties over the next 30 years, driven by an increasingly northern reach of hurricanes due to rising temperatures in the atmosphere and oceans, a nonprofit research group focusing on flood risks says.
For New Jersey, it says, that includes tens of thousands more properties at risk by 2050 than federal data currently suggest.
First Street Foundation’s first National Flood Risk Assessment, released Monday, was compiled by scientists who say they developed a “high-precision, climate-adjusted” online Flood Factor Tool for property owners. The tool ranks properties on a scale of 1 to 10 based on a risk of flooding over the next 30 years and allows people to assess the risk for 142 million properties in the United States.
For further information go to: https://www.inquirer.com/science/climate/climate-change-new-jersey-first-street-foundation-sea-level-rise-20200629.html
- Gregory Westfall
This blog is about NJAFM News and Announcements. Posts can only be made by NJAFM Administrators, however comments to the posts can be made by all registered members. If you have an announcement that you would like posted to this blog, send the request to IT@NJAFM.org